Drunk Driving Defense

Table of Contents

  • xix
    Table of Checklists
  • xxi
    Table of Forms
  • xxiii
    Table of Pleadings
  • xxv
    Preface
  • xxxi
    Acknowledgments
  • xxxiii
    Comment
  • I. Crime and Punishment
  • 1:1
    Chapter 1 - The Offense
  • §1.0
    1:1
    The Nature of the Crime
  • §1.1
    1:9
    Elements of the Offense: Driving a Vehicle on a Highway
    • §1.1.1
      1:10
      What constitutes "Driving"
    • §1.1.2
      1:19
      Putting the Defendant Behind the Wheel
    • §1.1.3
      1:21
      "Vehicle"
    • §1.1.4
      1:22
      "Highway"
  • §1.2
    1:25
    Elements of the Offense: Under the Influence of Alcohol ("DUI/DWI")
    • §1.2.1
      1:31
      Presumption of Intoxication from Blood-Alcohol Analysis
  • §1.3
    1:38
    Elements of the Offense: With an Excessive Blood-Alcohol Concentration ("Per Se")
    • §1.3.1
      1:42
      Presumption of BAC at Time of Driving
    • §1.3.2
      1:42
      Lay Expertise
    • §1.3.3
      1:43
      Admissibility of Lack-of-Impairment Evidence
  • §1.4
    1:45
    Related Criminal and Civil Liability
    • §1.4.1
      1:45
      Driving Under the Influence of Drugs
    • §1.4.2
      1:51
      Felony Drunk Driving
    • §1.4.3
      1:52
      Manslaughter
    • §1.4.4
      1:58
      Murder
    • §1.4.5
      1:62
      Civil Liability
  • §1.5
    1:64
    Inchoate and Accomplice Ability
    • §1.5.1
      1:64
      Attempted Drunk Driving
    • §1.5.2
      1:65
      Accomplice Liability
  • §1.6
    1:65
    Defenses
    • §1.6.1
      1:66
      Necessity
    • §1.6.2
      1:68
      Entrapment
    • §1.6.3
      1:69
      Duress
    • §1.6.4
      1:69
      Mistake of Fact
  • 2:1
    Chapter 2 - The Sentence
  • §2.0
    2:1
    Criminal Punishment
    • §2.0.1
      2:4
      Prior Convictions
    • §2.0.2
      2:6
      Other Sentence Enhancements
    • §2.0.3
      2:8
      Ignition Interlocks
    • §2.0.4
      2:9
      Vehicle Impound or Forfeiture
  • §2.1
    2:10
    Alternative Sentencing
  • §2.2
    2:15
    Multiple Punishment
    • §2.2.1
      2:17
      Punishment for Both DUI and Per Se Offences
  • §2.3
    2:19
    Probation Violation Hearings
  • 3:1
    Chapter 3 - License Suspension
  • §3.0
    3:1
    Administrative Suspension/Revocation of the Driver's License
    • §3.0.1
      3:4
      Probable Cause and Authority to Arrest
    • §3.0.2
      3:6
      Proof of Driving
    • §3.0.3
      3:6
      Failure to Give a Choice of Tests
    • §3.0.4
      3:7
      Immediate License Seizure
    • §3.0.5
      3:8
      Collateral Estoppel
    • §3.0.6
      3:12
      Double Jeopardy: Criminal and Civil Punishment
  • §3.1
    3:24
    The Per Se Suspension (.08/.10 percent BAC)
    • §3.1.1
      3:27
      "Zero Tolerance": .01 Percent BAC Suspension for Minors
  • §3.2
    3:28
    The Refusal
    • §3.2.1
      3:30
      What Constitutes a "Refusal"
    • §3.2.2
      3:33
      The Defective Implied Consent Advisement
    • §3.2.3
      3:37
      Implied Consent, Miranda and the Right to Counsel
    • §3.2.4
      3:43
      Physical Inability
    • §3.2.5
      3:46
      Attempts to Cure a Refusal
    • Checklist 1
      3:49
      The Refusal
  • §3.3
    3:50
    Suspension Hearings: Discovery, Procedure and Evidence
    • Checklist 2
      3:59
      The License Suspension Hearing (Refusal)
  • II. Pre-Trial
  • 4:1
    Chapter 4 - Pre-Trial Procedures
  • §4.0
    4:1
    Initial Client Contact
    • §4.0.1
      4:2
      The Interview
    • §4.0.2
      4:6
      Educating the Client
    • §4.0.3
      4:15
      The Retainer Agreement
    • §4.0.4
      4:15
      Preliminary Investigation
  • §4.1
    4:19
    Analysis of the Case
    • §4.1.1
      4:19
      The Prosecution's Case
    • §4.1.2
      4:22
      The Defense Case
    • §4.1.3
      4:26
      Conclusions
    • Checklist 3
      4:27
      Evaluating the Case
  • §4.2
    4:29
    The Arraignment
    • §4.2.1
      4:29
      The Defective Complaint
    • §4.2.2
      4:31
      Double Jeopardy
    • Checklist 4
      4:37
      The Arraignment
  • §4.3
    4:37
    Discovery
    • §4.3.1
      4:39
      Objects of Discovery
    • Checklist 5
      4:61
      Possible items for Discovery
    • §4.3.2
      4:62
      Prosecutorial Resistance
    • §4.3.3
      4:63
      The Discovery Motion
    • §4.3.4
      4:78
      The Subpoena Duces Tecum
  • §4.4
    4:88
    Obtaining and Analyzing Blood-Alcohol Evidence
    • §4.4.1
      4:89
      Preservation and Production of Police Sample
    • §4.4.2
      4:103
      Secondary Testing of Client
    • §4.4.3
      4:110
      Independent Analysis and the Defense Expert
  • §4.5
    4:115
    Prior Convictions
    • §4.5.1
      4:117
      Striking the Prior
    • §4.5.2
      4:131
      Priors from Arraignments En Masse
    • §4.5.3
      4:133
      The Uncounselled Prior Baldasar-Nichols
    • §4.5.4
      4:135
      Foreign, Juvenile and Nolo Priors
    • §4.5.5
      4:138
      Bifurcation of Trial
    • §4.5.6
      4:142
      Prosecutorial Burden
    • Checklist 6
      4:144
      Prior Convictions
  • §4.6
    4:145
    Plea Bargaining
  • 5:1
    Chapter 5 - Suppresion of Evidence
  • §5.0
    5:1
    Probable Cause to Stop, Detain and Arrest
    • §5.0.1
      5:6
      Lawful Arrest
    • §5.0.2
      5:8
      The Citizen Informant
    • Checklist 7
      5:12
      Probable Cause
    • §5.0.3
      5:12
      Sobriety Checkpoints
    • Checklist 8
      5:24
      Sobriety Checkpoints
    • §5.0.4
      5:29
      Evasion of Sobriety Checkpoints
  • §5.1
    5:30
    Field Evidence
    • §5.1.1
      5:31
      Verbal Field Sobriety Tests: Muniz
    • §5.1.2
      5:33
      Nonstandardized Field Sobriety Test
    • §5.1.3
      5:36
      Nystagmus
    • §5.1.4
      5:45
      Preliminary Breath Tests
    • §5.1.5
      5:48
      Videotapes, Audiotapes and Photographs
    • §5.1.6
      5:53
      Erased Tapes
    • §5.1.7
      5:57
      Police Obstruction of Witness
  • §5.2
    5:58
    Incriminating Statements and Refusals
    • §5.2.1
      5:63
      Miranda and the DUI Case
    • Checklist 9
      5:70
      Suppressing Incriminating Statements
    • §5.2.2
      5:71
      Refusal to Take Chemical Test: Self-Incrimination
    • §5.2.3
      5:74
      Refusal to Take Chemical Test: Relevance
    • §5.2.4
      5:78
      Refusal to Take Field Sobriety Tests
    • Checklist 10
      5:80
      Suppressing Evidence of Refusal
  • §5.3
    5:81
    Blood-Alcohol Evidence
    • §5.3.1
      5:81
      Defective Implied Consent Advisement
    • §5.3.2
      5:83
      Denial of Second Sample
    • §5.3.3
      5:88
      Denial of Access to Counsel
    • §5.3.4
      5:96
      Forceful Seizure of Blood Sample
    • §5.3.5
      5:99
      The Physician-Patient Privilege
    • §5.3.6
      5:106
      Noncompliance with Testing Regulations
    • §5.3.7
      5:114
      Chain of Custody
    • §5.3.8
      5:118
      Noncompliance with Discovery
    • Checklist 11
      5:120
      Suppressing Blood-Alcohol Evidence
  • III. Trial
  • 6:1
    Chapter 6 - Setting the Stage
  • §6.0
    6:1
    Jury Selection
    • §6.0.1
      6:9
      The Right to a Jury Trial in Drunk Driving Cases
    • §6.0.2
      6:12
      Discovery of Prosecution Records on Jurors
    • §6.0.3
      6:16
      Illustrative Jury Voir Dire
    • §6.0.4
      6:33
      Questionnaires and Propose Written Questions
  • §6.1
    6:38
    The Opening Statement
    • §6.1.1
      6:40
      Illustrative Opening Statement
  • §6.2
    6:44
    Using Demonstrative Evidence
  • 7:1
    Chapter 7 - Field Evidence: The Arresting Officer
  • §7.0
    7:1
    Field Evidence and the Arresting Officer
    • §7.0.1
      7:3
      The Officer as DUI Witness
    • §7.0.2
      7:8
      Preparation: Using Reports, Articles and the DMV
    • §7.0.3
      7:10
      Foundation : Training and Experience
    • §7.0.4
      7:13
      The Judo Approach in DUI Trials
    • §7.0.5
      7:15
      Audiovisual Evidence
    • §7.0.6
      7:18
      Countering with a Defense Police Expert
    • Checklist 12
      7:20
      General Cross-Examination of the Arresting Officer
  • §7.1
    7:21
    Observations of Driving
    • §7.1.1
      7:25
      The NHTSA Studies
  • §7.2
    7:27
    Behavior and Appearance of the Defendant
    • §7.2.1
      7:31
      Initial Behavior
    • §7.2.2
      7:33
      Clothing and Grooming
    • §7.2.3
      7:34
      Bloodshot Eyes
    • §7.2.4
      7:36
      Flushed Face
    • §7.2.5
      7:37
      Odor of Alcohol on Breath
    • §7.2.6
      7:40
      Speech Thick and Slurred
    • Checklist 13
      7:42
      Physical Appearance and Symptoms
  • §7.3
    7:44
    Field Sobriety Tests
    • §7.3.1
      7:49
      Cross-Examination Techniques
    • Checklist 14
      7:60
      Field Sobriety Tests
    • §7.3.2
      7:61
      Preliminary Breath Tests
    • §7.3.3
      7:67
      Pupil Reaction Test
  • §7.4
    7:69
    Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus
    • Checklist 15
      7:76
      Nystagmus
    • §7.4.1
      7:78
      Illustrative Cross-Examination on Nystagmus
    • §7.5
      7:90
      The NHTSA Standardized Field Sobriety Tests
    • §7.5.1
      7:94
      Walk-and-Turn
    • §7.5.2
      7:98
      One-Leg-Stand
    • §7.5.3
      7:101
      Nystagmus
  • §7.6
    7:106
    Ten Cross-Examination Techniques
    • §7.6.1
      7:106
      The Infallible Cop
    • §7.6.2
      7:107
      Selective Recall
    • §7.6.3
      7:108
      The Wedge
    • §7.6.4
      7:111
      The Magic Memory
    • §7.6.5
      7:112
      Xeroxed Symptoms
    • §7.6.6
      7:114
      The Disappearing Sway
    • §7.6.7
      7:115
      The Negative Pregnant
    • §7.6.8
      7:116
      Reverse Impairment
    • §7.6.9
      7:117
      The Rigged Scoreboard
    • §7.6.10
      7:121
      The Bomb
  • §7.7
    7:122
    Illustrative Cross-Examination of Arresting Officer
  • 8:1
    Chapter 8 - Chemical Evidence: The Forensic Expert
  • §8.0
    8:1
    Blood-Alcohol Analysis
    • §8.0.1
      8:4
      Alcohol and the Human Body
    • §8.0.2
      8:9
      The Fallacy of the "Average Person"
    • §8.0.3
      8:11
      Individual Tolerance
    • §8.0.4
      8:14
      Women and Alcohol
    • §8.0.5
      8:17
      The Rising BAC Curve
    • §8.0.6
      8:18
      Retrograde Extrapolation
    • §8.0.7
      8:29
      Eating, Smoking and Alcohol Metabolism
    • §8.0.8
      8:34
      The Zinc Factor
    • §8.0.9
      8:34
      Internally Produced Alcohol
    • §8.0.10
      8:35
      Radio Frequency Interference (RFI)
    • §8.0.11
      8:42
      Inherent Error
  • §8.1
    8:45
    Breath Analysis
    • §8.1.1
      8:49
      The Blood-Breath Partition Ratio
    • §8.1.2
      8:53
      Nonspecific Analysis
    • §8.1.3
      8:62
      Testing During the Absorptive State
    • §8.1.4
      8:64
      Mouth Alcohol
    • §8.1.5
      8:71
      Hematocrit
    • §8.1.6
      8:72
      Body Temperature
    • §8.1.7
      8:73
      Breathing Pattern
    • §8.1.8
      8:75
      Stress
    • §8.1.9
      8:76
      Simulator Calibration
    • §8.1.10
      8:79
      Used Mouthpiece
    • §8.1.11
      8:79
      Ambient Air
    • Checklist 16
      8:81
      Breath Analysis
  • §8.2
    8:82
    The Machines
    • §8.2.1
      8:84
      The Intoxilyzer 5000
    • Checklist 17
      8:109
      Intoxilyzer 5000
    • §8.2.2
      8:110
      The Intoximeter 3000
    • Checklist 18
      8:123
      Intoximeter 3000
    • §8.2.3
      8:124
      The BAC Verifier/Datamaster
    • Checklist 19
      8:134
      BAC Verifier/Datamaster
  • §8.3
    8:136
    Blood Analysis
    • §8.3.1
      8:146
      Sterilization
    • §8.3.2
      8:150
      Fermentation
    • §8.3.3
      8:152
      Whole Blood Versus Serum/Plasma
    • §8.3.4
      8:155
      Arterial Versus Venous Blood
    • Checklist 20
      8:156
      Blood Analysis
  • §8.4
    8:157
    Urinalysis
    • §8.4.1
      8:162
      The Urine: Blood Ratio
    • §8.4.2
      8:164
      The Incomplete Void
    • §8.4.3
      8:166
      Candida Albicans
    • Checklist 21
      8:167
      Urinalysis
  • §8.5
    8:168
    Ten Cross-Examination Techniques
    • §8.5.1
      8:170
      The Smart Machine
    • §8.5.2
      8:174
      The Spiked Aspirin
    • §8.5.3
      8:175
      Close Enough for Government Work
    • §8.5.4
      8:176
      How Infrared Works—and Why It Doesn't
    • §8.5.5
      8:178
      The Defective Warranty
    • §8.5.6
      8:182
      RFI Magic
    • §8.5.7
      8:183
      A Ton of Beer
    • §8.5.8
      8:184
      The Invisible Breath Sample
    • §8.5.9
      8:185
      Wonder Blood
    • §8.5.10
      8:186
      Purple Urine
    • §8.5.11
      8:187
      A Lot of Hot Air
  • §8.6
    8:187
    Illustrative Cross-Examination of the Expert
  • §8.7
    8:213
    The Defense Blood-Alcohol Expert
    • §8.7.1
      8:217
      Illustrative Direct Examination of Defense Expert
    • §8.7.2
      8:227
      Preparing the Defense Expert for Cross-Examination
  • 9:1
    Chapter 9 - The Lay Witness
  • §9.0
    9:1
    Cross-Examination of the Percipient Witness
    • §9.0.1
      9:5
      Illustrative Cross-Examination of Percipient Witness
  • §9.1
    9:10
    The Defense Sobriety Witness
    • §9.1.1
      9:11
      Illustrative Direct Examination of Sobriety Witness
    • §9.1.2
      9:14
      Preparing the Sobriety Witness for Cross-Examination
  • §9.2
    9:17
    Should the Defendant Testify?
    • §9.2.1
      9:21
      Preparing the Defendant
    • §9.2.2
      9:26
      Illustrative Direct Examination of the Defendant
  • 10:1
    Chapter 10 - Summation and Jury Instruction
  • §10.0
    10:1
    Jury Instructions
    • §10.1
      10:11
      The Closing Argument
    • T:1
      Table of Cases
    • R:1
      Resources
    • B:1
      Bibliography
    • I:1
      Index
  • Table of Forms
    • Form 1
      §4.0.1
      Client Interview Questionnaire
    • Form 2
      §4.0.1
      Client Interview Form — Condensed Version
    • Form 3
      §4.0.3
      Attorney's Retainer & Fee Agreement
    • Form 4
      §4.3.1
      Arrest and Booking Report
    • Form 5
      §4.3.1
      Sobriety Examination
    • Form 6
      §4.3.1
      Operator's Intoximeter 3000 Checklist
    • Form 7
      §4.3.1
      Intoxilyzer 5000 Calibration and Maintenance Log
    • Form 8
      §4.3.1
      Medical Release
    • Form 9
      §4.3.1
      Police DUI Report
    • Form 10
      §7.6.9
      Field Sobriety Tests
    • Form 11
      §8.2.1
      Intoxilyzer 5000 Checklist
    • Form 12
      §8.2.1
      Intoxilyzer 5000 Test Card for Recording Results
    • Form 13
      §8.2.2
      Intoximeter 3000 Checklist and Test Record
    • Form 14
      §8.5.5
      Manufacturer's Warranty for Intoxilyzer 5000
  • Table of Pleadings
    • §3.3
      Respondent's interrogatories to petitioner
    • §3.3
      Request for administrative review
    • §4.3.3
      Accused's motion for discovery in DWI prosecution (blood test)
    • §4.3.4
      Motion for order directing pre-trial inspection, Subpoena duces teum
    • §4.4.1
      Notice of motion to preserve and produce blood Sample, Points and authorities, Declaration of Attorney, Order to preserve and produce blood Sample
    • §4.4.3
      Order appointing independent laboratory and order to produce
    • §4.4.3
      Order for appointment of chemical expert to testify At pre-trial motions and/or trial
    • §4.5.1
      Notice of motion to strike and declare alleged prior Conviction or convictions unconstitutional, Declaration of defendant in support of motion, Supplemental points and authorities in support of motion
    • §5.0
      Notice of motion to suppress evidence
    • §5.0.3
      Notice of motion to suppress, Points and authorities in support of motion to suppress
    • §6.0.2
      Motion for disclosure of prior jury service an information on prospective jurors
    • §6.0.4
      Defendant's Questions to the Jury
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