California Drunk Driving Defense

Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • Comment
  • Acknowledgements
  • About the Author
  • Part One - Crime and Punishment
  • Chapter 1 - The Offense
  • I. Generally
  • §1:1
    The corpus
  • §1:2
    "Drive"
  • §1:3
    "Vehicle"
  • II. Under the Influence
  • A. Under the Influence of Alcohol (Veh C § 23152 (a))
  • §1:4
    In general
  • §1:5
    "Under the Influence" defined
  • §1:6
    Blood-alcohol presumptions
  • B. Over .08% Blood Alcohol Content (Veh C § 23152 (b))
  • §1:7
    In genera
  • §1:8
    Juveniles under 21 with .05% blood-alcohol content
  • §1:9
    Commercial driver with .04% blood-alcohol content
  • C. Under the Influence of Drugs (Veh C § 23152 (a))
  • §1:10
    In general
  • §1:11
    Driving while addicted: Veh C § 23152 (c)
  • III Felony Drunk Driving (Veh C § 23153 (a) and (b))
  • §1:12
    In general
  • §1:13
    Vehicular manslaughter
  • §1:14
    Murder: Watson
  • §1:15
    "Three strikes": Veh C § 23152 with three priors
  • IV. Other Grounds of Liability
  • §1:16
    Attempted drunk driving
  • §1:17
    Accomplice liability
  • V. Defenses
  • §1:18
    In general
  • §1:19
    Double jeopardy
  • §1:20
    Mistake of fact
  • §1:21
    Necessity and duress
  • §1:22
    Entrapment
  • §1:23
    Insanity
  • Chapter 2 - The Sentence
  • I. The Misdemeanor (Veh C § 23152)
  • §2:1
    In general
  • §2:2
    License suspension/restriction
  • §2:3
    DUI school
  • §2:4
    Ignition interlocks
  • §2:5
    Impound and sale of vehicle
  • II. The Felony (Veh C § 23153)
  • §2:6
    In general
  • §2:7
    "Three strikes"
  • §2:8
    Manslaughter and murder
  • III. Sentence Enhancements
  • §2:9
    In general
  • §2:10
    Prior convictions (Veh C § 23152)
  • §2:11
    Prior convictions (Veh C § 23153)
  • §2:12
    Refusal
  • §2:13
    Reckless speeding
  • §2:14
    Child endangerment
  • §2:15
    Over .20% blood-alcohol content
  • §2:16
    Multiple victims
  • IV. Sentencing Issues
  • §2:17
    In general
  • §2:18
    Multiple punishment
  • §2:19
    Defendant's perjury at trial
  • §2:20
    Work furlough
  • §2:21
    Community service and work release
  • §2:22
    Residential alcohol treatment
  • §2:23
    Electronic home detection
  • V. Probation Violatoin
  • §2:24
    In general
  • Part Two - License Suspensions and the DMV
  • Chapter 3 - Administrative Suspension
  • §3:1
    In general
  • §3:2
    Drivers under 21: "zero tolerance"
  • II. Refusal To submit to chemical Test
  • §3:3
    In general
  • §3:4
    What constitutes a refusal
  • III. Double Jeopardy and Collateral Estoppel
  • §3:5
    In general
  • Chapter 4 - The DMV Hearing
  • I. Pretrial Procedures
  • §4:1
    In general
  • §4:2
    Discovery and the subpoena
  • II. Hearing Procedures
  • §4:3
    In general
  • §4:4
    Rules of evidence
  • III. Administrative and Judicial Review
  • §4:5
    In general
  • Part Three - Pretrial
  • Chapter 5 - Interview and Arraignment
  • I. Generally
  • §5:1
    The midnight phone call
  • II. The Client Interview
  • §5:2
    In general
  • §5:3
    Educating the client
  • §5:4
    The retainer agreement
  • III. The Arraignment
  • §5:5
    general
  • §5:6
    Plea of "once in jeopardy" (DMV suspension)
  • IV. Evaluating and Plea Bargaining the Case
  • §5:7
    In general; evaluating the case
  • §5:8
    Plea bargaining
  • Chapter 6 - Discovery
  • I. Generally
  • §6:1
    In general
  • §6:2
    Police evidence
  • II. Blood-Alcohol Evidence
  • §6:3
    In general
  • §6:4
    Obtaining blood or urine sample
  • §6:5
    Obtaining court-ordered analysis and expert testimony
  • §6:6
    Sample discovery motion
  • III. Using the DMV Hearing
  • §6:7
    For deposing the officer
  • Chapter 7 - Prior Convictions
  • I. Generally
  • §7:1
    In general
  • II. Procedure
  • A. Factual Requirements
  • §7:2
    In general
  • §7:3
    Bifurcation of trial
  • B. Legal Requirements
  • §7:4
    In general; moving to strike the prior
  • §7:5
    Constitutional grounds
  • §7:6
    Procedural requirements
  • §7:7
    The record
  • III. Issues as to Specific Priors
  • §7:8
    Uncharged priors
  • §7:9
    The uncounselled prior
  • §7:10
    The juvenile prior
  • §7:11
    Foreign priors
  • §7:12
    Incompetence of prior counsel
  • §7:13
    Sample motion to strike prior conviction
  • Chapter 8 - Suppression of Evidence
  • I. Generally
  • §8:1
    In general
  • II. Stop, Detention and Arrest
  • §8:2
    In generally; probable cause
  • §8:3
    Sobriety checkpoints
  • §8:4
    Authority to arrest: driving in officer's presence
  • III. Incriminating Statements
  • §8:5
    In general; Miranda-Berkemer
  • §8:6
    The corpus rule
  • §8:7
    Refusal to take chemical test
  • IV. Field Sobriety Tests
  • §8:8
    In general; Kelley-Frye
  • §8:9
    Mental acuity tests: Muniz
  • §8:10
    Nystagmus
  • §8:11
    Pupil reaction
  • §8:12
    Preliminary breath tests (PBT)
  • §8:13
    Police obstruction of witnesses
  • §8:14
    Tapes, film and photographs
  • V. Blood-Alcohol Evidence
  • §8:15
    In general
  • §8:16
    Defective implied consent and advisement
  • §8:17
    Denial of access to counsel
  • §8:18
    Forceful seizure: Schmerber
  • §8:19
    Denial of independent sample
  • §8:20
    Chain of custody
  • §8:21
    Lack of foundation: Title 17
  • §8:22
    Failure to provide discovery
  • Part Four - Trial
  • Chapter 9 - Jury Selection and Opening Statement
  • I. Jury Selectoin
  • §9:1 In general
  • §9:2
    Illustrative jury voir dire
  • §9:3
    Sample proposed questions
  • §9:4
    Discovery of prosecution records on jurors
  • II. Opening Statement
  • §9:5
    In general; illustration
  • Chapter 10 - Field Evidence: The Arresting Officer
  • I. Generally
  • A. Generally
  • §10:1
    In general; field evidence and the arresting officer
  • §10:2
    The officer as intoxication expert
  • §10:3
    Preparation
  • §10:4
    Strategy
  • B. Officer's Background and Experience
  • §10:5
    General techniques
  • §10:6
    Officer's training and experience
  • II. Driving Symptoms
  • §10:7
    In general
  • §10:8
    The NHTSA studies
  • III. Physical Symptoms
  • §10:9
    In general
  • §10:10
    Appearance and conduct
  • §10:11
    Odor of alcohol on breath
  • §10:12
    Flushed face
  • §10:13
    Bloodshot eyes
  • §10:14
    Slurred speech
  • §10:15
    The effects of hypoglycemia
  • IV. Field Sobriety Tests
  • A. Generally
  • §10:16
    In general
  • §10:17
    Performance tests
  • §10:18
    Objective scoring
  • §10:19
    Kelley-Frye and standardized field sobriety tests
  • §10:20
    The NHTSA tests
  • B. Eye Impairment Tests
  • §10:21
    In general; pupil reaction
  • §10:22
    Horizontal gaze nystagmus (HGN)
  • §10:23
    Illustrative cross-examination on nystagmus
  • V. Preliminary Breath Tests
  • §10:24
    In general
  • VI. Special Cross-Examination Techniques
  • §10:25
    In general
  • §10:26
    The infallible cop
  • §10:27
    Selective recall
  • §10:28
    The wedge
  • §10:29
    The magic memory
  • §10:30
    Carbon-copy symptoms
  • §10:31
    The disappearing sway
  • §10:32
    The negative pregnant
  • §10:33
    Reverse impairment
  • §10:34
    The rigged scoreboard
  • §10:35
    The bomb
  • §10:36
    Field evidence and the arresting officer
  • VII. Defense Police Expert
  • §10:37
    In general
  • Chapter 11 - Chemical Evidence: The Forensic Chemist
  • I. Generally; Blood-Alcohol Analysis
  • §11:1
    In general
  • §11:2
    Blood-alcohol absorption
  • §11:3
    The fallacy of the average person
  • §11:4
    Individual tolerance
  • §11:5
    Women and alcohol
  • §11:6
    The rising blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) curve
  • §11:7
    Retrograde extrapolation
  • §11:8
    Food, cigarettes and alcohol metabolism
  • §11:9
    The zinc factor
  • §11:10
    Internally produced alcohol
  • §11:11
    Radio frequency interference (RFI)
  • §11:12
    Inherent error
  • II. Breath Analysis
  • A. Generally
  • §11:13
    In general
  • §11:14
    The blood-breath partition ratio
  • §11:15
    Nonspecific analysis
  • §11:16
    Testing during the absorptive state
  • §11:17
    Mouth alcohol
  • §11:18
    Hematocrit
  • §11:19
    Body temperature
  • §11:20
    Breathing pattern
  • §11:21
    Stress
  • §11:22
    Simulator calibration
  • §11:23
    Ambient air
  • B. Breath Analysis Machines
  • §11:24
    In general
  • §11:25
    The Intoxilyzer 5000
  • §11:26
    The Intoximeter 3000
  • III. Blood Analysis
  • §11:27
    In general
  • §11:28
    Sterilization
  • §11:29
    Fermentation
  • §11:30
    Whole blood vs. serum/plasma
  • §11:31
    Arterial vs. venous blood
  • IV. Urinalysis
  • §11:32
    In general
  • §11:33
    The urine:blood ratio
  • §11:34
    The incomplete void
  • §11:35
    Candida albicans
  • V. Cross-Examination Techniques
  • A. Generally
  • §11:36
    In general
  • §11:37
    The smart machine
  • §11:38
    The spiked aspirin
  • §11:39
    Close enough for government work
  • §11:40
    How infrared works — and why it doesn't
  • §11:41
    The defective warranty
  • §11:42
    RFI magic
  • §11:43
    A ton of beer
  • §11:44
    The invisible breath sample
  • §11:45
    Wonder blood
  • §11:46
    Purple urine
  • B. Illustrative Cross-Examination of Expert
  • §11:47
    In general
  • §11:48
    Transcript of cross-examination of an expert
  • §11:49
    Illustrative cross-examination of Intoxilyzer operator
  • VI. The Defense Blood-Alcohol Expert
  • §11:50
    In general
  • §11:51
    Preparing the defense expert for cross-examination
  • §11:52
    Illustrative direct examination of defense expert
  • Chapter 12 - The Lay Witness; Defendant Witness
  • I. Generally; Percipient Witness
  • §12:1
    In general
  • §12:2
    Lay opinion of intoxication
  • §12:3
    Illustrative cross-examination of percipient witness
  • II. Sobriety Witness
  • §12:4
    In general
  • §12:5
    Preparing the sobriety witness for cross-examination
  • §12:6
    Illustrative direct examination of sobriety witness
  • III. Defendant
  • §12:7
    In general; should the defendant testify?
  • §12:8
    Preparing the defendant
  • §12:9
    Illustrative direct examination of defendant
  • Chapter 13 - Jury Instructions and Argument
  • §13:1
    Jury instructions
  • §13:2
    CALJIC instructions
  • §13:3
    Closing argument
  •  
    • Bibliography
    • Table of Statutes
    • Table of Cases
    • Index
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